Version 27 (modified by, 12 years ago) (diff)


This guide will allow you to build Qt5 and WebKit2 for N9/N950 (MeeGo Harmattan), and run MiniBrowser on the device.

1. Setting up cross-compile environment

The easiest way to develop for Harmattan is to cross-compile using a sysroot. The Qt SDK already comes with a Harmattan sysroot and the required ARM toolchain, and we build on top of that to create a sysroot suitable for building Qt5 and WebKit2.

  1. Prepare your environment
  $ mkdir ~/swork 
  $ cd ~/swork

Note: This base directory is just an example used in this guide. You're free to change where you keep your sources and builds (shadow-builds), as long as you account for that when running the various commands.

  1. Download and install the Qt SDK from

Both Mac OS X and Linux X11/64-bit should work fine.

  1. Get some convenience-scripts used in this guide and for development
  $ git clone browser-scripts
  1. Set up custom MADDE target
  $ browser-scripts/

This will create a new target based on the original Harmattan target that comes with the QtSDK, but with different names for the ARM-toolchain binaries, and pre-installed packages needed for Qt5 development.

  1. Download testfonts
      $ git clone git://
  1. Get the source of Qt5 and WebKit
      $ browser-scripts/

This will try to clone Qt5 and WebKit git repository to ~/swork/qt5 and ~/swork/webkit.

Warning: Sometimes Qt5 cloning fail because of connection timeout problems. This would cause that your ~/swork/qt5/qtscript direcory stays empty and WebKit build will miss QtScript/qscriptengine.h header. In this case delete ~/swork/qt5 and re-run .

If you have already a local git repo for WebKit, you can speed up the process by copying its contents to ~/swork/webkit directory. After copying you should run git reset --hard HEAD on it before running . You can update the sources by running:

  $ browser-scripts/
  1. Create ICECC toolchain (optional)

If you have multiple workstations configured to use ICECC, you can speed up building process significantly.

Create a toolchain for distributed building (run@host):

  $ cd ~/swork
  $ browser-scripts/ --environment cross

Save the printed output to a file called

icecc_tarball=$(readlink -f $HOME/icecc/icecc-build)

if [ -f $icecc_tarball ] ; then
    export ICECC_VERSION="i386:$icecc_tarball,x86_64:$icecc_tarball"
    export PATH="/home/azbest/icecc/bin:$PATH"
    export MAKEFLAGS="$MAKEFLAGS -j$parallel_builds"
    export DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS="$DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS,parallel=$parallel_builds"

Make the script runnable and execute it before building when you need speedup.

  1. Build Qt5, QtComponents, and QtWebKit
  $ .
  $ export -n QTDIR
  $ browser-scripts/ --cross-compile

If everything is right you should get similar result:

 WebKit is now built (30m:22s). 
 To run QtTestBrowser with this newly-built code, use the
 "Tools/Scripts/run-launcher" script.

1.1 Updating build environment

If you need to update browser-scripts, run on host:

  $ cd ~/swork/browser-scripts
  $ git reset --hard HEAD
  $ git pull

If you neet to update Qt5 and WebKit, run on host:

  $ cd ~/swork/qt5 
  $ git submodule foreach --recursive git clean -fdx
  $ git clean -fdx
  $ git reset --hard HEAD
  $ cd ~/swork/webkit
  $ git clean -fdx
  $ git reset --hard HEAD
  $ cd ~/swork
  $ browser-scripts/

2. Configuring your device (N9/N950)

Note: It's highly encouraged that you enable open mode on your device. This disables the security system on the device (AEGIS), which lets you mount (SSHF/NFS), making development a lot easier.

2.1 Enabling open mode

The retail N9 has a very stricky security system, called AEGIS. You can read about this at: Harmattan Security Guide

The only known way to disable AEGIS restrictions is flashing an alternate kernel onto N9.

Notice:: This could void the warranty! After flashing the device will show a warranty void message while booting.

This section based on


It is recommended to flash back the device to factory state. If you have any importand data on the device, back it up first or you will lose it!

Install Nokia flasher utility and download the firmware and pached kernel file to a directory.

Turn off the device and disconnect it from usb. Flash the original firmware to the device:

  sudo flasher -F DFL61_HARMATTAN_20.2011.40-4_PR_LEGACY_001-OEM1-958_ARM.bin -F DFL61_HARMATTAN_20.2011.40-4.CENTRALEUROPE_EMMC_CENTRALEUROPE.bin -f

Do NOT disconnect usb cable. Do NOT restart the phone. Now, flash the pached kernel onto it:

  sudo flasher -f -a DFL61_HARMATTAN_20.2011.40-4_PR_LEGACY_001-OEM1-958_ARM.bin -k zImage-

Now, your N9 is ready. Disconnect it from usb. It will start booting.

2.1. Turn on developer mode

There is a tutorial for this at

Enable developer mode: Settings / Security / Developer mode. After installation the device will do a reboot.

Change usb connection mode: Settings / Accessories / USB to "SDK" or "Always ask".

Set up wifi internet connection. Connect usb cable.

2.2. Set up device

  $ browser-scripts/

This will set up password-less login, install missing packages, and set up SSHFS if you're running in open-mode.

From this point on you should be able to refer to the device as 'device', and the default user should be 'developer'.

2.3. Enable root login (optional)

Login as 'developer':

  $ ssh developer@
developer@'s password: ****** (getting this from N9 usb connection)

Switch to root (run@n9):

  /home/developer $ devel-su
Password: rootme

You can create permanent password for default user 'user' (run@n9):

  ~ # passwd user
New password: password
Re-enter new password: password

Enable root login on ssh (run@n9):

  ~ #vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

PermitRootLogin yes

After saving sshd_config, modify default ssh options (run@n9):

  ~ #echo -e 'mkdir -m 0755 -p /var/run/sshd\nexec /usr/sbin/sshd $SSHD_OPTS' >> /etc/default/ssh
  ~ #pkill -9 /usr/sbin/sshd

Now you can access your N9 as root over ssh. Be careful: it is a huge security risc. (run@host)

  $ ssh -X root@
Password: rootme

Maybe you should change default root password, too.

2.4 Qt5/WebKit packages for Harmattan (optional)

If you don't want to build Qt5 from scratch you can use a repository with the Qt5 modules required by QtWebKit. Instructions on Qt wiki:

(Almost) Daily snapshots of WebKit are available in the same repository of the Qt5 packages. The package is named 'webkit-snapshot' and the version number indicates the SVN revision that it was built with. The package copies everything from WebKitBuild/Release, except the Source folder, and installs to the same target directory of Qt5, /opt/qt5.

Installation (as root through developer mode "devel-su" command):

apt-get update
apt-get install webkit-snapshot

3.Running things on device

The best option is to mount your host on the device using either NFS or SSHFS (the latter is preferred). The alternative is to rsync files over.

3.1a Mounting SSHFS

If you ran the script with an open mode kernel, you should now have your host available at /mnt/host, as well as your home directory available.

3.1b Transfer files with rsync

With rsync you can deploy the files to the device.

Required storage:

  • (ext4)/home/user - 1GB
  • (vfat)/home/user/MyDocs - 4.3GB

Download rsync for N9

Scp rsync installer to N9 as root (run@host):

  $ scp rsync_3.0.9-1.0~rzr1_armel.deb root@device:./
  $ ssh root@device
  RM696-40-4_PR_001:~# dpkg -i rsync_3.0.9-1.0~rzr1_armel.deb
  RM696-40-4_PR_001:~# exit

Create public key for ssh connection, if you don't have it already (run@host):

  $ ssh-keygen -t rsa

Copy public key to N9 (run@host):

  $ ssh user@device "mkdir .ssh"
  $ scp ~/.ssh/ user@device:./.ssh/authorized_keys

Now, you don't have to enter password for 'user' when you connect to N9.

Download rsync-scripts.tar.gz and extract it to ~/swork.

Initialize directory tree for Qt and WebKit files (run@host):


Sync files to device:

  ~/swork/rsync-scripts$ ./

This script will execute ./, ./, ./ and ./ This can take some time on first run, so get some coffee or have a lunch.

If you don't want to transfer LayoutTests to N9, then you should use ./ --no-layout-tests. Without this argument rsync always does re-transfer on LayoutTests because of the vfat filesystem's limitation.

3.2. Running MiniBrowser

3.2.1. Environment variables

Now create script for setting environment variables (run@host):

ssh user@ "echo 'export QTDIR=/home/user/swork/qt5/qtbase' >; \
echo 'export QT_IMPORT_PATH=/home/user/swork/qt5/qtbase/imports' >>; \
echo 'export QML_IMPORT_PATH=/home/user/swork/qt5/qtbase/imports' >>; \
echo 'export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/home/user/swork/qt5/qtbase/lib:/home/user/swork/qtwebkit-webkit2-dev-builddir-armel-m6/Release/lib' >>; \
echo 'export QT_PLUGIN_PATH=/home/user/swork/qt5/qtbase/plugins' >>; \
echo 'export QT_QPA_PLATFORM_PLUGIN_PATH=/home/user/swork/qt5/qtbase/plugins/platforms' >>; \
echo 'export QT_QPA_PLATFORM=xcb' >>; \
echo 'export WEBKIT_TESTFONTS=/home/user/swork/testfonts' >>; \
echo '# export TZ=/usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Los_Angeles' >>; \
echo 'export PATH=/home/user/swork/qt5/qtbase/bin:$PATH' >>"

Load environment variables (run@n9):


3.2.2. Launch browser



4. Flash back N9 to factory state

If you want to restore the original factory state of the device or flashing went wrong you may need to flash the original firmware to the N9.


  • If your device cannot boot up at all, you need to use rd-mode switch steps.
  • If you re-flash your device just for clean-up, only flashing (Step 2) is required.
  • If you rewrite device with EMMC binary, than all your data will be lost.

Youtube example:

Step 1 Disconnect your N9 device from usb. To turn on rd-mode and disable lifeguard-reset run:

sudo flasher --set-rd-flags=no-lifeguard-reset --enable-rd-mode

Now connect usb cable and wait for finding the device.

Step 2 Disconnect N9 from usb.

sudo flasher -F DFL61_HARMATTAN_20.2011.40-4_PR_LEGACY_001-OEM1-958_ARM.bin -F DFL61_HARMATTAN_20.2011.40-4.CENTRALEUROPE_EMMC_CENTRALEUROPE.bin -f -R

Now connect usb cable and wait for minimum 11% battery level, than flashing will be started.

Step 3 After flashing is complet and N9 device is rebooted disconnect it from usb. Turn off rd-mode and disable lifeguard-reset:

sudo flasher --clear-rd-flags=no-lifeguard-reset --disable-rd-mode

Connect usb cable...

More about R&D mode:


If your device has hardware error (corrupted flash storage), you will get similar results as these:

Battery level 72 %, continuing.

image [state progress transfer flash speed]
[x] cert-sw [finished 100 % 1 / 1 kB NA ]
[x] cmt-2nd [finished 100 % 95 / 95 kB NA ]
[x] cmt-algo [finished 100 % 789 / 789 kB NA ]
[_] cmt-mcusw [init 0 % 1024 / 6050 kB NA ]
[x] xloader [finished 100 % 23 / 23 kB NA ]
[x] secondary [finished 100 % 93 / 93 kB NA ]
[x] kernel [finished 100 % 2712 / 2712 kB 1271 kB/s]
[_] rootfs [init 0 % 12288 / 1102340 kB NA ]
ERROR: SU_GET_UPDATE_STATUS_REQ terminated with error code 1: Unknown error

image [state progress transfer flash speed]
[x] cert-sw [finished 100 % 1 / 1 kB NA ]
[x] cmt-2nd [finished 100 % 95 / 95 kB NA ]
[x] cmt-algo [finished 100 % 789 / 789 kB NA ]
[x] cmt-mcusw [finished 100 % 6050 / 6050 kB 3317 kB/s]
[x] xloader [finished 100 % 23 / 23 kB NA ]
[x] secondary [finished 100 % 93 / 93 kB NA ]
[x] kernel [finished 100 % 2712 / 2712 kB 1271 kB/s]
[f] rootfs [init 0 % 13312 / 1102340 kB NA ]
Fetching error list:
bb5_rdc_cert_read failed
bb5_rdc_cert_read failed
bb5_rdc_cert_read failed
bb5_rdc_cert_read failed
bb5_rdc_cert_read failed
bb5_rdc_cert_read failed
mmc: Could not find device path under /sys/class/mmc_host/mmc0
mmc: Failed to init mmc block device
scconf_parse_entries failed: (null)
Unable to parse layout
mmc: Could not remove mount directory /tmp/sudmmc9J3FtB/mnt: No such file or dir
mmc: Could not unlink (null): Bad address
[Pipe 3] Finishing in error state with status 1

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