Changes between Version 2 and Version 3 of TracFineGrainedPermissions


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Timestamp:
Mar 21, 2017 6:03:35 PM (5 years ago)
Author:
trac
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  • TracFineGrainedPermissions

    v2 v3  
    11= Fine grained permissions =
    2 
    3 Before Trac 0.11, it was only possible to define fine-grained permissions checks on the repository browser sub-system.
    4 
    5 Since 0.11, there's a general mechanism in place that allows custom **permission policy plugins** to grant or deny any action on any kind of Trac resources, even at the level of specific versions of such resources.
    6 
    7 Note that for Trac 0.12, `authz_policy` has been integrated as an optional module (in `tracopt.perm.authz_policy.*`), so it's installed by default and can simply be activated via the //Plugins// panel in the Trac administration module.
    8 
     2[[PageOutline(2-5, Contents, floated)]]
     3[[TracGuideToc]]
     4
     5There is a general mechanism in place that allows custom **permission policy plugins** to grant or deny any action on any kind of Trac resource, even at the level of specific versions of such resources.
     6
     7That mechanism is `authz_policy`, which is an optional module in `tracopt.perm.authz_policy.*`, so it is installed by default. It can be activated via the //Plugins// panel in the Trac administration module.
    98
    109== Permission Policies ==
    1110
    12 A great diversity of permission policies can be implemented, and Trac comes with a few examples.
     11A great diversity of permission policies can be implemented and Trac comes with a few examples.
    1312
    1413Which policies are currently active is determined by a configuration setting in TracIni:
    15 e.g.
    16 {{{
    17 [trac]
    18 permission_policies = AuthzSourcePolicy, DefaultPermissionPolicy, LegacyAttachmentPolicy
    19 }}}
    20 This lists the [#AuthzSourcePolicy] described below as the first policy, followed by the !DefaultPermissionPolicy which checks for the traditional coarse grained style permissions described in TracPermissions, and the !LegacyAttachmentPolicy which knows how to use the coarse grained permissions for checking the permissions available on attachments.
    21 
    22 Among the possible optional choices, there is [#AuthzPolicy], a very generic permission policy, based on an Authz-style system. See
    23 [trac:source:branches/0.12-stable/tracopt/perm/authz_policy.py authz_policy.py] for details.
     14
     15{{{#!ini
     16[trac]
     17permission_policies = ReadonlyWikiPolicy, DefaultPermissionPolicy, LegacyAttachmentPolicy
     18}}}
     19This lists the [#ReadonlyWikiPolicy] which controls readonly access to wiki pages, followed by the !DefaultPermissionPolicy which checks for the traditional coarse grained style permissions described in TracPermissions, and the !LegacyAttachmentPolicy which knows how to use the coarse grained permissions for checking the permissions available on attachments.
     20
     21Among the optional choices, there is [#AuthzPolicy], a very generic permission policy, based on an Authz-style system. See
     22[trac:source:branches/1.0-stable/tracopt/perm/authz_policy.py authz_policy.py] for details.
    2423
    2524Another popular permission policy [#AuthzSourcePolicy], re-implements the pre-0.12 support for checking fine-grained permissions limited to Subversion repositories in terms of the new system.
    2625
    27 See also [trac:source:branches/0.12-stable/sample-plugins/permissions sample-plugins/permissions] for more examples.
    28 
     26See also [trac:source:branches/1.0-stable/sample-plugins/permissions sample-plugins/permissions] for more examples.
    2927
    3028=== !AuthzPolicy ===
    3129==== Configuration ====
    32 * Install [http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/configobj.html ConfigObj] (still needed for 0.12).
    33 * Copy authz_policy.py into your plugins directory.
    3430* Put a [http://swapoff.org/files/authzpolicy.conf authzpolicy.conf] file somewhere, preferably on a secured location on the server, not readable for others than the webuser. If the  file contains non-ASCII characters, the UTF-8 encoding should be used.
    3531* Update your `trac.ini`:
    36   1. modify the [TracIni#trac-section permission_policies] entry in the `[trac]` section
    37 {{{
     32  1. modify the [TracIni#trac-section permission_policies] entry in the `[trac]` section:
     33{{{#!ini
    3834[trac]
    3935...
    40 permission_policies = AuthzPolicy, DefaultPermissionPolicy, LegacyAttachmentPolicy
    41 }}}
    42   2. add a new `[authz_policy]` section
    43 {{{
     36permission_policies = AuthzPolicy, ReadonlyWikiPolicy, DefaultPermissionPolicy, LegacyAttachmentPolicy
     37}}}
     38  1. add a new `[authz_policy]` section:
     39{{{#!ini
    4440[authz_policy]
    4541authz_file = /some/trac/env/conf/authzpolicy.conf
    4642}}}
    47   3. enable the single file plugin
    48 {{{
     43  1. enable the plugin through [/admin/general/plugin WebAdmin] or by editing the `[components]` section:
     44{{{#!ini
    4945[components]
    50 ...
    51 # Trac 0.12
    5246tracopt.perm.authz_policy.* = enabled
    53 # for Trac 0.11 use this
    54 #authz_policy.* = enabled
    55 }}}
     47}}}
     48
    5649==== Usage Notes ====
    57 Note that the order in which permission policies are specified is quite critical,
    58 as policies will be examined in the sequence provided.
     50
     51Note the order in which permission policies are specified: policies are implemented in the sequence provided and therefore may override earlier policy specifications.
    5952
    6053A policy will return either `True`, `False` or `None` for a given permission check. `True` is returned if the policy explicitly grants the permission. `False` is returned if the policy explicitly denies the permission. `None` is returned if the policy is unable to either grant or deny the permission.
    6154
    62 NOTE: Only if the return value is `None` will the ''next'' permission policy be consulted.
    63 If none of the policies explicitly grants the permission, the final result will be `False`
    64 (i.e. permission denied).
     55NOTE: Only if the return value is `None` will the ''next'' permission policy be consulted. If none of the policies explicitly grants the permission, the final result will be `False`, i.e. permission denied.
    6556
    6657The `authzpolicy.conf` file is a `.ini` style configuration file:
    67 {{{
     58{{{#!ini
    6859[wiki:PrivatePage@*]
    6960john = WIKI_VIEW, !WIKI_MODIFY
     
    7162* =
    7263}}}
    73 * Each section of the config is a glob pattern used to match against a Trac resource
    74   descriptor. These descriptors are in the form:
     64* Each section of the config is a glob pattern used to match against a Trac resource descriptor. These descriptors are in the form:
    7565{{{
    7666<realm>:<id>@<version>[/<realm>:<id>@<version> ...]
    7767}}}
    78   Resources are ordered left to right, from parent to child. If any
    79   component is inapplicable, `*` is substituted. If the version pattern is
    80   not specified explicitely, all versions (`@*`) is added implicitly
    81 
    82   Example: Match the WikiStart page
    83 {{{
     68
     69Resources are ordered left to right, from parent to child. If any component is inapplicable, `*` is substituted. If the version pattern is not specified explicitly, all versions (`@*`) is added implicitly. Example: Match the WikiStart page:
     70{{{#!ini
    8471[wiki:*]
    8572[wiki:WikiStart*]
     
    8875}}}
    8976
    90   Example: Match the attachment `wiki:WikiStart@117/attachment/FOO.JPG@*`
    91   on WikiStart
    92 {{{
     77Example: Match the attachment `wiki:WikiStart@117/attachment:FOO.JPG@*` on WikiStart:
     78{{{#!ini
    9379[wiki:*]
    9480[wiki:WikiStart*]
    9581[wiki:WikiStart@*]
    96 [wiki:WikiStart@*/attachment/*]
    97 [wiki:WikiStart@117/attachment/FOO.JPG]
    98 }}}
    99 
    100 * Sections are checked against the current Trac resource descriptor '''IN ORDER''' of
    101   appearance in the configuration file. '''ORDER IS CRITICAL'''.
    102 
    103 * Once a section matches, the current username is matched against the keys
    104   (usernames) of the section, '''IN ORDER'''.
     82[wiki:WikiStart@*/attachment:*]
     83[wiki:WikiStart@117/attachment:FOO.JPG]
     84}}}
     85
     86* Sections are checked against the current Trac resource descriptor '''IN ORDER''' of appearance in the configuration file. '''ORDER IS CRITICAL'''.
     87
     88* Once a section matches, the current username is matched against the keys (usernames) of the section, '''IN ORDER'''.
    10589  * If a key (username) is prefixed with a `@`, it is treated as a group.
    106   * If a value (permission) is prefixed with a `!`, the permission is
    107     denied rather than granted.
    108 
    109   The username will match any of 'anonymous',
    110   'authenticated', <username> or '*', using normal Trac permission rules.
     90  * If a value (permission) is prefixed with a `!`, the permission is denied rather than granted.
     91
     92The username will match any of 'anonymous', 'authenticated', <username> or '*', using normal Trac permission rules. || '''Note:''' Other groups which are created by user (e.g. by 'adding subjects to groups' on web interface page //Admin / Permissions//) cannot be used. See [trac:ticket:5648 #5648] for details about this missing feature. ||
    11193
    11294For example, if the `authz_file` contains:
    113 {{{
     95{{{#!ini
    11496[wiki:WikiStart@*]
    11597* = WIKI_VIEW
     
    127109
    128110Then:
    129   * All versions of WikiStart will be viewable by everybody (including anonymous)
     111  * All versions of WikiStart will be viewable by everybody, including anonymous
    130112  * !PrivatePage will be viewable only by john
    131113  * other pages will be viewable only by john and jack
    132114
    133115Groups:
    134 {{{
     116{{{#!ini
    135117[groups]
    136118admins = john, jack
     
    153135
    154136Some repository examples (Browse Source specific):
    155 {{{
     137{{{#!ini
    156138# A single repository:
    157139[repository:test_repo@*]
    158140john = BROWSER_VIEW, FILE_VIEW
    159141# John has BROWSER_VIEW and FILE_VIEW for the entire test_repo
     142
     143# The default repository (requires Trac 1.0.2 or later):
     144[repository:@*]
     145john = BROWSER_VIEW, FILE_VIEW
     146# John has BROWSER_VIEW and FILE_VIEW for the entire default repository
    160147
    161148# All repositories:
    162149[repository:*@*]
    163150jack = BROWSER_VIEW, FILE_VIEW
    164 # John has BROWSER_VIEW and FILE_VIEW for all repositories
    165 }}}
    166 
    167 Very fine grain repository access:
    168 {{{
     151# Jack has BROWSER_VIEW and FILE_VIEW for all repositories
     152}}}
     153
     154Very granular repository access:
     155{{{#!ini
    169156# John has BROWSER_VIEW and FILE_VIEW access to trunk/src/some/location/ only
    170157[repository:test_repo@*/source:trunk/src/some/location/*@*]
    171158john = BROWSER_VIEW, FILE_VIEW
    172159
    173 
    174160# John has BROWSER_VIEW and FILE_VIEW access to only revision 1 of all files at trunk/src/some/location only
    175161[repository:test_repo@*/source:trunk/src/some/location/*@1]
    176162john = BROWSER_VIEW, FILE_VIEW
    177163
    178 
    179164# John has BROWSER_VIEW and FILE_VIEW access to all revisions of 'somefile' at trunk/src/some/location only
    180165[repository:test_repo@*/source:trunk/src/some/location/somefile@*]
    181166john = BROWSER_VIEW, FILE_VIEW
    182167
    183 
    184168# John has BROWSER_VIEW and FILE_VIEW access to only revision 1 of 'somefile' at trunk/src/some/location only
    185169[repository:test_repo@*/source:trunk/src/some/location/somefile@1]
     
    189173Note: In order for Timeline to work/visible for John, we must add CHANGESET_VIEW to the above permission list.
    190174
     175==== Missing Features ====
     176Although possible with the !DefaultPermissionPolicy handling (see Admin panel), fine-grained permissions still miss those grouping features (see [trac:ticket:9573 #9573], [trac:ticket:5648 #5648]). Patches are partially available, see authz_policy.2.patch, part of [trac:ticket:6680 #6680].
     177
     178You cannot do the following:
     179{{{#!ini
     180[groups]
     181team1 = a, b, c
     182team2 = d, e, f
     183team3 = g, h, i
     184departmentA = team1, team2
     185}}}
     186
     187Permission groups are not supported either, so you cannot do the following:
     188{{{#!ini
     189[groups]
     190permission_level_1 = WIKI_VIEW, TICKET_VIEW
     191permission_level_2  = permission_level_1, WIKI_MODIFY, TICKET_MODIFY
     192[*]
     193@team1 = permission_level_1
     194@team2 = permission_level_2
     195@team3 = permission_level_2, TICKET_CREATE
     196}}}
    191197
    192198=== !AuthzSourcePolicy  (mod_authz_svn-like permission policy) === #AuthzSourcePolicy
    193199
    194 At the time of this writing, the old fine grained permissions system from Trac 0.11 and before used for restricting access to the repository has  been converted to a permission policy component, but from the user point of view, this makes little if no difference.
    195 
    196 That kind of fine-grained permission control needs a definition file, which is the one used by Subversion's mod_authz_svn.
    197 More information about this file format and about its usage in Subversion is available in the  [http://svnbook.red-bean.com/en/1.5/svn.serverconfig.pathbasedauthz.html Path-Based Authorization] section in the Server Configuration chapter of the svn book.
     200At the time of this writing, the old granular permissions system from Trac 0.11 and before used for restricting access to the repository has been converted to a permission policy component. But from the user's point of view, this makes little if any difference.
     201
     202That kind of granular permission control needs a definition file, which is the one used by Subversion's mod_authz_svn.
     203More information about this file format and about its usage in Subversion is available in the [http://svnbook.red-bean.com/en/1.5/svn.serverconfig.pathbasedauthz.html Path-Based Authorization] section in the Server Configuration chapter of the svn book.
    198204
    199205Example:
    200 {{{
     206{{{#!ini
    201207[/]
    202208* = r
     
    216222==== Trac Configuration ====
    217223
    218 To activate fine grained permissions you __must__ specify the {{{authz_file}}} option in the {{{[trac]}}} section of trac.ini. If this option is set to null or not specified the permissions will not be used.
    219 
    220 {{{
    221 [trac]
     224To activate granular permissions you __must__ specify the {{{authz_file}}} option in the `[svn]` section of trac.ini. If this option is set to null or not specified, the permissions will not be used.
     225
     226{{{#!ini
     227[svn]
    222228authz_file = /path/to/svnaccessfile
    223229}}}
    224230
    225 If you want to support the use of the `[`''modulename''`:/`''some''`/`''path''`]` syntax within the `authz_file`, add 
    226 
    227 {{{
     231If you want to support the use of the `[`''modulename''`:/`''some''`/`''path''`]` syntax within the `authz_file`, add:
     232
     233{{{#!ini
    228234authz_module_name = modulename
    229235}}}
    230236
    231 where ''modulename'' refers to the same repository indicated by the `repository_dir` entry in the `[trac]` section. As an example, if the `repository_dir` entry in the `[trac]` section is {{{/srv/active/svn/blahblah}}}, that would yield the following:
    232 
    233 {{{
    234 [trac]
     237where ''modulename'' refers to the same repository indicated by the `<name>.dir` entry in the `[repositories]` section. As an example, if the `somemodule.dir` entry in the `[repositories]` section is `/srv/active/svn/somemodule`, that would yield the following:
     238
     239{{{ #!ini
     240[svn]
    235241authz_file = /path/to/svnaccessfile
    236 authz_module_name = blahblah
     242authz_module_name = somemodule
    237243...
    238 repository_dir = /srv/active/svn/blahblah
    239 }}}
    240 
    241 where the svn access file, {{{/path/to/svnaccessfile}}}, contains entries such as {{{[blahblah:/some/path]}}}.
     244[repositories]
     245somemodule.dir = /srv/active/svn/somemodule
     246}}}
     247
     248where the svn access file, {{{/path/to/svnaccessfile}}}, contains entries such as {{{[somemodule:/some/path]}}}.
    242249
    243250'''Note:''' Usernames inside the Authz file __must__ be the same as those used inside trac.
     
    245252As of version 0.12, make sure you have ''!AuthzSourcePolicy'' included in the permission_policies list in trac.ini, otherwise the authz permissions file will be ignored.
    246253
    247 {{{ 
    248 [trac]
    249 permission_policies = AuthzSourcePolicy, DefaultPermissionPolicy, LegacyAttachmentPolicy
     254{{{#!ini
     255[trac]
     256permission_policies = AuthzSourcePolicy, ReadonlyWikiPolicy, DefaultPermissionPolicy, LegacyAttachmentPolicy
    250257}}}
    251258
     
    253260
    254261The same access file is typically applied to the corresponding Subversion repository using an Apache directive like this:
    255 {{{
     262{{{#!apache
    256263<Location /repos>
    257264  DAV svn
     
    263270}}}
    264271
    265 For information about how to restrict access to entire projects in a multiple project environment see [trac:wiki:TracMultipleProjectsSVNAccess]
     272For information about how to restrict access to entire projects in a multiple project environment see [trac:wiki:TracMultipleProjectsSVNAccess].
     273
     274=== ReadonlyWikiPolicy
     275
     276Since 1.1.2, the read-only attribute of wiki pages is enabled and enforced when `ReadonlyWikiPolicy` is in the list of active permission policies. The default for new Trac installations in 1.1.2 and later is:
     277{{{
     278[trac]
     279permission_policies = ReadonlyWikiPolicy,
     280 DefaultPermissionPolicy,
     281 LegacyAttachmentPolicy
     282}}}
     283
     284When upgrading from earlier versions of Trac, `ReadonlyWikiPolicy` will be appended to the list of `permission_policies` when upgrading the environment, provided that `permission_policies` has the default value. If any non-default `permission_polices` are active, `ReadonlyWikiPolicy` **will need to be manually added** to the list. A message will be echoed to the console when upgrading the environment, indicating if any action needs to be taken.
     285
     286**!ReadonlyWikiPolicy must be listed //before// !DefaultPermissionPolicy**. The latter returns `True` to allow modify, delete or rename actions when the user has the respective `WIKI_*` permission, without consideration for the read-only attribute.
     287
     288The `ReadonlyWikiPolicy` returns `False` to deny modify, delete and rename actions on wiki pages when the page has the read-only attribute set and the user does not have `WIKI_ADMIN`, regardless of `WIKI_MODIFY`, `WIKI_DELETE` and `WIKI_RENAME` permissions. It returns `None` for all other cases.
     289
     290When active, the [#AuthzPolicy] should therefore come before `ReadonlyWikiPolicy`, allowing it to grant or deny the actions on individual resources, which is the usual ordering for `AuthzPolicy` in the `permission_policies` list.
     291{{{
     292[trac]
     293permission_policies = AuthzPolicy,
     294 ReadonlyWikiPolicy,
     295 DefaultPermissionPolicy,
     296 LegacyAttachmentPolicy
     297}}}
     298
     299The placement of [#AuthzSourcePolicy] relative to `ReadonlyWikiPolicy` does not matter since they don't perform checks on the same realms.
     300
     301For all other permission policies, the user will need to decide the proper ordering. Generally, if the permission policy should be capable of overriding the check performed by `ReadonlyWikiPolicy`, it should come before `ReadonlyWikiPolicy` in the list. If the `ReadonlyWikiPolicy` should override the check performed by another permission policy, as is the case for `DefaultPermissionPolicy`, then `ReadonlyWikiPolicy` should come first.
    266302
    267303== Debugging permissions
    268304In trac.ini set:
    269 {{{
     305{{{#!ini
    270306[logging]
    271307log_file = trac.log
     
    274310}}}
    275311
    276 And watch:
    277 {{{
     312Display the trac.log to understand what checks are being performed:
     313{{{#!sh
    278314tail -n 0 -f log/trac.log | egrep '\[perm\]|\[authz_policy\]'
    279315}}}
    280316
    281 to understand what checks are being performed. See the sourced documentation of the plugin for more info.
    282 
     317See the sourced documentation of the plugin for more info.
    283318
    284319----