Python in WebKit
Below is an overview of WebKit's use of Python.
- WebKit's Python scripts require Python 2.6 or higher to run.
- Scripts/test-webkitpy unit tests the Python code. It also cleans orphan *.pyc files from webkitpy (i.e. .pyc files without a corresponding .py file). You can also do this manually (for all *.pyc files in webkitpy) using the following command:
find Tools/Scripts -wholename '*.pyc' | xargs rm
- Most of the Python code is in Tools/Scripts/webkitpy.
- Tools/Scripts also contains end-user Python scripts (which usually import from webkitpy).
- Code is written to assume that .../Tools/Scripts is in your PYTHONPATH. test-webkitpy handles this internally, but you may find it useful to add the setting to your environment.
- Generally, we try to keep as much of the Python code in webkitpy as possible since this allows the code to be organized more nicely (for unit tests to be in companion files, etc).
- Unit test files are in correspondence with modules. For example, if module.py is the name of a module, its unit test file would be module_unittest.py and would lie in the same directory.
- The root-level folders in webkitpy/ generally correspond to end-user scripts in Tools/Scripts. For example--
- check-webkit-style -> webkitpy/style/
- new-run-webkit-tests -> webkitpy/layout_tests/
- webkit-patch -> webkit/tool/
- Exceptions to the rule above are--
- webkitpy/common/: code shared by multiple root folders
- webkitpy/python24/: code that needs to work under Python 2.4 (currently just the version-checking code)
- webkitpy/thirdparty/: all third-party code in webkitpy
Strings and Unicode
Code should take care to follow the Unicode strategy outlined in this comment thread.
FIXME: Fill in this section with specific guidance from the comment thread above.
Informally, we try to follow PEP8. Eventually we may make this official.
For the time being, we are not following the 79 character line length limit (or any line length limit for that matter).
For discussion purposes, here are some additional guidelines to consider:
- Prefer single quotes to double quotes. Use double quotes only if the string contains single quotes (or if you are using "triple double quotes"). This simplifies writing unit tests because Python behaves this way when rendering string objects to the console. For example--
>>> list = ["blah", 'blah', '\'blah\''] >>> print list ['blah', 'blah', "'blah'"]This allows console output to be cut and pasted directly into the code when writing and updating unit tests.
- Order from and import statements within a group by the name of the leading module instead of putting all from statements before import statements:
# Correct: import logging from optparse import OptionParser import sys # Incorrect: from optparse import OptionParser import logging import sysThis keeps the ordering of lines the same when changing a from statement to an import statement, and vice versa. This also makes it easer to see if both from and import statements are used to import from the same package (since the lines will be adjacent). By "within a group," we mean in the PEP8 sense of grouping standard library imports separately from local application imports, etc.
- When writing unit tests with the unittest module, unittest.TestCase classes should have names of the form ClassTest, where "Class" is the name of the class being tested. Similarly, test methods should have names of the form test_method__description, where "method" is the name of the method in the class being tested. The double underscore after "method" is helpful because "method" may itself have underscores. This style is used, for example, in the unit tests for Python's unittest module itself (e.g. see here).
Upgrading from Python 2.3 or Python 2.4
[Much of these instructions are Mac-specific.]
If you are upgrading from Python 2.3 or 2.4, you should upgrade to Python 2.6 rather than 2.5.
You can tell what version of Python you are currently using by typing--
Before trying to install a new version, check whether your machine already has other versions installed. From a Mac, you can try reading the man page--
For example, Snow Leopard comes with Python 2.5, 2.6, and 3.0. The man page provides instructions on how to switch your system between these system-installed versions.
If you need to install a new version not on your machine, you can use MacPorts to do this. MacPorts allows you to install Python versions alongside your system versions without interfering with them. After installing MacPorts, simply type (for example)--
sudo port install python26
You should probably also install python_select using MacPorts--
sudo port install python_select
The python_select command allows you to quickly go back and forth between Python versions, like so--
> python -V Python 2.6.4 > sudo python_select python24 Selecting version "python24" for python > python -V Python 2.4.6
To find out what versions of Python you can switch to using python_select, type--